Origami

introduction

Our perception of the world is formed from childhood. How it draws the child in his imagination, it depends largely on the environment. If your baby is growing and developing, communicating with interesting people, surrounded by objects executed spiritual beauty, his world is like a multi-colored rainbow. And in a perfect world, it would be desirable to create and develop, in order to make it more perfect. To create beautiful, you must have a subtle flair and imagination. Imagination - is coloring our own world. His development of the child contributes to the production of a variety of craft projects with their own hands. Through this activity the child learns to create beauty itself, acquires skills to transition into adulthood.

Abilities and the makings of a creative activity are present in every human being, but are used by no means all. These abilities are necessary and can be developed.

Harmonically the proper development of children depends largely on the aesthetic education. From early childhood, one develops a sense of beauty. And because that is reflected in these representations, and the future depends on the person and his appearance and clothes, and actions, as well as the way he builds relationships with other people.

Aesthetic education - is not only education through labor, acquaintance with nature, the environment. The concepts of labor, beauty and morality are inextricably linked, so children need to work, fall in love with his career. Each child's own unique intellectual and creative abilities, but the ability to work with your hands is very important, because through it, you can influence the creative work of the mind. Children develop, comprehend the laws of beauty, harmony, form the creative abilities and cultivate moral qualities through work.

One of the most accessible materials for creative work is paper. Liven up in the hands of a child, it becomes a work of art, opening up opportunities for the development of a creative nature. Work with paper in origami technique, because it manual labor, also contributes to the harmonious development of personality. There is no child who in infancy did not like to mess around with paper. Toddlers love to crush, tear the paper sheets, favorite children's books. Psychologists say that the torn books have beneficial effects on young children, consider it a kind of preparation for the work. Growing up, children begin tinkering sheets of paper ready to go to flight airplanes, "bombs", steamers, frogs.

The folding figures from paper appeared in virtually every country after its invention, and more or less widespread use, in the same way as in the culture of each country is widespread folding fabric of any of items (they include Eastern turbans, Greek tunics and Indian saris and other decorations). Therefore we can say that the figures from folding paper stems from the development of human needs and progress, but also bears the imprint of the character of the person that puts any figure.

The Art of "origami", which translated from Japanese means "folding paper" appeared simultaneously with the invention of paper.

In Europe, the paper came to be called by analogy with its predecessor - the papyrus. Papyrus appeared in ancient Egypt, about 3.5 thousand. BC. e. It was made of cane. For the manufacture of papyrus bamboo stem lower portion took only about 60 cm long. It was purified from the outer layer and the core divided into the white stripes and soaked for several days in water. Thus, strips swelled and soluble substances were removed. The resulting softened strip is kept under pressure, and then again immersed in water for a day. This operation is performed multiple times as long as the strip is not bought cream color and thinner until translucent state. After that they finally dried, compacted and smoothed stone. But papyrus made only to V in. n. e., later its production was strongly reduced, but with the advent of paper papyrus lost value and stopped producing it on an industrial scale.

In II. BC. e. have the papyrus has a competitor - the parchment. It began to produce in Asia Minor in the city of Pergamum (parchment from the city got its name). Parchment served as an excellent material for writing. Given that it was produced from the skin of young animals, it was much stronger, more flexible and more durable than its competitor. And to use it was much more convenient and practical. If necessary, it could be written on both sides, to wash away the unnecessary or erroneous text. Such a material was only one drawback - quite a labor-intensive production, which in turn was reflected in its price.

According to scientists in the III-IV centuries. BC. e. already existed materials that resemble paper. The technology of production of this new and unusual for that time of the material the Chinese could learn from Turkmens. In eastern Turkestan craftsmen learned to make very thin felt, thoroughly soak small pieces of wool in water, which are then caught a screen projected onto a special press, squeezed and dried.

In China, instead of steel wool to use plant fibers, to be exact - the crushed pieces of mulberry bark, razmochalennye bamboo stalks. The result was a completely new material - paper.

In 105 AD. e. official Cai Lun officially reported to the emperor about the appearance of new technologies. This was considered the official date of "appearance" of the paper. In VI. n. e. China's paper money arose Fei Tian (Flying coins).

In China, the secret of making paper was carefully guarded, but in VII. n. e. itinerant Buddhist monk Dan-ho, who "was rich Knowledge and know how to make paper and ink", made it to Japan and gave the secret of papermaking. Thus, in 610 ( "The Japanese Chronicles") appeared in Japan's manufacturing technology of paper.

In Japan, we adhere to the following paper production technology. Silkworm cocoons were boiled, laid out on the mat, carefully washed, ground into a homogeneous mass, which after ottsezhivaniya water dried. The upper layer was removed, resulting in a thin fibrous mat layer was formed, after otglazhivaniya transforms into a paper sheet. Then the expensive raw materials were replaced by cheaper: on the bamboo stems, bark, hemp, rags. Over time, the Japanese paper ceased to give in, and then start to exceed the quality of Chinese.

Converted paper production technology exists in Japan to date. Small shops and now made manually separate sheets of paper and expensive "your." In this paper special properties, it is very durable, can withstand several thousand folds, so it is often used instead of glass in Japanese homes. The paper, "your" used after the end of the First World War at the signing "of the Versailles peace treaty."

The European paper industry came from the Arabs in the XI-XII centuries. Originally, it was developed in Italy, Spain and France. Later it spreads to other countries. The Italians have made some improvements in the production process and began to receive the paper with water marks, replaced for the sizing of the starting material of animal glue to the plant, and so on. D. The changes resulted in a more quality mass production of paper.

The greatest development of origami received in Japan, which is now recognized as the true birthplace of this type of crafts.

In Japan, origami is not only a favorite hobby. The Japanese there was some mystical connection between religious rituals and products made from folded paper ( "Orica"). An example of this ritual is the production of small paper boxes Sanbo in which sacrifices were put in Shinto temples (pieces of fish and vegetables). In the XIV century. Origami only ceased to be a religious attribute and reached the imperial court. All the aristocrats, representing to the court, had to have some skill of folding. Notes, folded in the shape of a butterfly, cranes, flowers and abstract geometric figure, were at that time a symbol of friendship and best wishes for a loved one.

Such figurines often expressed more attention and love than the words of the note. Possession of the art of origami is a sign of a good education and refined manners. Some noble families origami figurines served as emblem or printing.

Children from poor families of Japanese paper toys for many centuries remained the only joy. Origami Secrets handed down from generation to generation, they were carefully guarded and kept secret from outsiders. And only when the origami on the right was a type of Japanese art, opened its secrets to the masses, and there are real lovers of origami.

In the XVI-XVIII centuries. origami from ceremonial art transformed into a pleasant pastime. During this period, there are many models, which are now considered classics (Japan Crane (DVGA), and others.).

In the second half of the XIX century. Japan is no longer a closed country, with the result that the world became acquainted with the elements of its culture, including classical figurines made in origami technique.

But in Europe, and until that time there was a craft resembling origami. Spain boasts its own independent discovery of the figures, for example, ptichkami- "paharitami". But in Europe, the paper material was rare and expensive, so in that period often folded fabric - collars (in the costumes of XVI-XVII centuries.), Bonnets and other headgear, which became a symbol of the Sisters of Charity, a nun, maid.

In Europe, among the admirers of origami can be identified by Leonardo da Vinci, author of "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll, Leo Tolstoy.

German educator Friedrich Froebel promoted folding of the paper as a didactic method to explain the children some simple rules of geometry. Subsequently, students from around the world began to engage in origami to develop abilities.

The revolutionary development of origami happened thanks to the efforts of the world famous origamista Akira Yoshizawa. Akira Yoshizawa was the author of hundreds of new, previously unknown figures. He proved that the art of folding is copyrighted and contributed to its spread around the world. The famous Japanese invented a simple notation, allowing to present the figures in the process of making a series of drawings - drawings. These conventional signs used by the majority of people involved in origami.

In the last forty years of origami has reached the greatest blossoming: origamistov clubs have appeared not only in Japan but also in the Netherlands, the UK and many other developed countries.

Thanks origami out of the ordinary sheet of paper by his repeated addition, you can create a whole world of plants, birds, animals and fantasy creatures. Jumping frogs, paper boats and planes, newspaper caps to protect their heads from the sun, kulechki Seeds - all this simple form of origami, which mark almost everyone. Origami is part of our daily lives in the form of gift packaging, creation of paper bags, boxes and boxes for storing cherished items, Christmas decorations, and so on. D. Therefore, in the past century, origami was a compulsory subject in the education of girls and enhance their creative and artistic abilities .

In ancient times when paper was scarce, only the rich and respected people could use it, and origami technique was an art for the elite. The first to put figurines of paper monks, putting them in a religious sense. The paper was then began to use in the festivities and weddings, as gifts and decorations for the home.

Modern designers using origami decorate shop windows, a variety of exhibitions and presentations, using the elements of art in the performance theater, carnival and festive costumes. Origami has found its niche in the construction: the engineers assessed the reliability and ease of storage and transportation of prefabricated folded structures. Some principles of origami are used to create drop-down antennas spacecraft.

In the world of origami has found its fans, and their number is increasing day by day. Children for their favorite arts break away from computers and televisions, adult fans spend origami competitions, master classes, exhibitions, seminars, conferences, create websites, then, summing up his work, publish magazines and books, and even make films. In Japan, and then in other countries, have confirmed that the origami improves memory, attention and overall well-being of children and adults.

The use of origami in the learning process, there were two significant disadvantages:

1. Until the mid XX century. It was not a simple and intuitive way of describing the known and new models that would do without the direct display of folding one person others (verbally describe even the simplest model was very difficult).

2. Outdated education system in many countries in the XX century. It does not attach importance to creativity, the main task of training - the mechanical development (learning, memorizing) is already known. For example, students in the classroom literature never offer to write the poem itself, in the classroom mathematics - to prove a theorem on the biology - to care for plants and animals in practice, and so on..

And origami classes that are just creative, all the shortcomings of this approach to education are manifested with a vengeance. Simple and intuitive graphical language of origami, consisting of several types of lines and arrows, created Akira Yoshizawa, making the first negative learning this art has disappeared - now the folding process can be graphically convey, "sketch". Reading received images appeared quite accessible even to most younger students. The number of schemes origami grew rapidly and today amounts to many thousands. Among this variety is easy to find a figure at the very different taste, right on topics of varying complexity and labor ...

This is a great invention A. Yoshizawa forever made his name in the annals of history as the actual origami and linguistics, computer science, education and pedagogy, design, wellness and preventive medicine, and so on. D. Always inventing new origami Yoshizawa find, invent and bring to mass methods of gradual and orderly preparation of students for independent creative origami. With this approach, origami classes became very interesting for students. This approach is more distributed and was named "creative origami."

Origami history in Russia goes back centuries. It is known that Tolstoy and Stanislavsky folded paper figurines, loved this activity and the crown prince, the future Emperor Nicholas II.

The current stage of development of origami as a teaching subject and design direction from the end of 1980 - the beginning of the 1990s. At this time are the first clubs origami lovers (for example, the Moscow club of origami, origami center Omsk, Kiev origami club), published by origami scheme, first among the other "puzzles", then separately. Get out pamphlets and books on the art.

Origami develops logical and imaginative (spatial) imagination, positive effect on thinking and memory and gives positive emotions from the process and outcome of labor.

Students of junior classes with great interest to fold new figures, enjoy playing with them, older children using origami clearly familiar with a variety of geometric concepts. Doctors and psychologists say that origami lessons remarkably positive effect on the emotional background of the children, give a break from the stressful learning process, relieve chronic nerve stress. Origami allows to reveal and awaken in children a logical and figurative memory, develop thinking, attention.

Occupation Origami really like kids. This art seems a mystery to them, and they were surprised by the incredible transformations of an ordinary sheet of paper. It's a miracle! From the same sheet, you can make a boat, airplane, cap, dragon, birds, animals, and many other interesting things. How much joy it gives the child!

As in any game, the most important thing people enjoy the process, not the end result. Children have a great sense of satisfaction from done with his own hands a toy.

In the origami so many levels of complexity, from simple airplane, which can carry out any child to the figures, which are only a few masters can add up. And the levels of complexity in the arts will increase continuously, it's a constantly evolving activity.

Origami not only help to take your free time, but also develop fine motor skills. Thanks to the development of fine motor skills of origami influence the general intellectual development, including on the question.

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